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馃帀 Material UI v5 is out! Head to the migration guide to get started.

Separaciones

Esta API permite usar separaciones en una amplia variedad de contextos.

Para una optima experiencia de usuario, las interfaces de material design necesitan ser capaces de adaptar su layout a varias separaciones. Material-UI usa una implementaci贸n simplificada de la especificaci贸n original.

Las separaciones son usadas internamente en varios componentes para hacerlos responsive, pero tambi茅n puede tomar ventaja de ellos para controlar el layout de su aplicaci贸n mediante los componentes Grid y Hidden.

Default breakpoints

Cada separaci贸n (una llave) coincide con el ancho de pantalla fijo (un valor):

  • xs extra-peque帽o: 0px
  • sm peque帽o: 600px
  • md, mediano: 960px
  • lg, grande: 1280px
  • xl extra-grande: 1920px

These breakpoint values are used to determine breakpoint ranges. Un rango empieza desde el valor de separaci贸n inclusivo, hasta el siguiente valor de separaci贸n exclusivo:

value         |0px     600px    960px    1280px   1920px
key           |xs      sm       md       lg       xl
screen width  |--------|--------|--------|--------|-------->
range         |   xs   |   sm   |   md   |   lg   |   xl

These values can be customized.

CSS Media Queries

CSS media queries are the idiomatic approach to make your UI responsive. The theme provides four styles helpers to do so:

In the following demo, we change the background color (red, blue & green) based on the screen width.

const styles = theme => ({
  root: {
    padding: theme.spacing(1),
    [theme.breakpoints.down('sm')]: {
      backgroundColor: theme.palette.secondary.main,
    },
    [theme.breakpoints.up('md')]: {
      backgroundColor: theme.palette.primary.main,
    },
    [theme.breakpoints.up('lg')]: {
      backgroundColor: green[500],
    },
  },
});

down(sm): red

up(md): blue

up(lg): green

<Typography>{'down(sm): red'}</Typography>
<Typography>{'up(md): blue'}</Typography>
<Typography>{'up(lg): green'}</Typography>

JavaScript Media Queries

Sometimes, using CSS isn't enough. You might want to change the React rendering tree based on the breakpoint value, in JavaScript.

useMediaQuery hook

You can learn more on the useMediaQuery page.

withWidth()

鈿狅笍 This higher-order component will be deprecated for the useMediaQuery hook.

import withWidth from '@material-ui/core/withWidth';

function MyComponent(props) {
  return <div>{`Current width: ${props.width}`}</div>;
}

export default withWidth()(MyComponent);

In the following demo, we change the rendered DOM element (em, u, del & span) based on the screen width.

Custom breakpoints

You define your project's breakpoints in the theme.breakpoints section of your theme.

  • theme.breakpoints.values: Default to the above values. The keys are your screen names, and the values are the min-width where that breakpoint should start.
  • theme.breakpoints.unit: Default to px. The unit used for the breakpoint's values.
  • theme.breakpoints.step: Default to 5 (0.05px). The increment used to implement exclusive breakpoints.

If you change the default breakpoints's values, you need to provide them all:

const theme = createTheme({
  breakpoints: {
    values: {
      xs: 0,
      sm: 600,
      md: 960,
      lg: 1280,
      xl: 1920,
    },
  },
})

Feel free to have as few or as many breakpoints as you want, naming them in whatever way you'd prefer for your project.

const theme = createTheme({
  breakpoints: {
    values: {
      tablet: 640,
      laptop: 1024,
      desktop: 1280,
    },
  },
});

If you are using TypeScript, you would also need to use module augmentation for the theme to accept the above values.

declare module "@material-ui/core/styles/createBreakpoints" {
  interface BreakpointOverrides {
    xs: false; // removes the `xs` breakpoint
    sm: false;
    md: false;
    lg: false;
    xl: false;
    tablet: true; // adds the `tablet` breakpoint
    laptop: true;
    desktop: true;
  }
}

API

theme.breakpoints.up(key) => media query

Argumentos

  1. key (String | Number): A breakpoint key (xs, sm, etc.) or a screen width number in pixels.

Devuelve

media query: A media query string ready to be used with most styling solutions, which matches screen widths greater than and including the screen size given by the breakpoint key.

Ejemplos

const styles = theme => ({
  root: {
    backgroundColor: 'blue',
    // Match [md, 鈭)
    //       [960px, 鈭)
    [theme.breakpoints.up('md')]: {
      backgroundColor: 'red',
    },
  },
});

theme.breakpoints.down(key) => media query

Argumentos

  1. key (String | Number): A breakpoint key (xs, sm, etc.) or a screen width number in pixels.

Devuelve

media query: A media query string ready to be used with most styling solutions, which matches screen widths less than and including the screen size given by the breakpoint key.

Ejemplos

const styles = theme => ({
  root: {
    backgroundColor: 'blue',
    // Match [0, md + 1)
    //       [0, lg)
    //       [0, 1280px)
    [theme.breakpoints.down('md')]: {
      backgroundColor: 'red',
    },
  },
});

theme.breakpoints.only(key) => media query

Argumentos

  1. key (String): A breakpoint key (xs, sm, etc.).

Devuelve

media query: A media query string ready to be used with most styling solutions, which matches screen widths including the screen size given by the breakpoint key.

Ejemplos

const styles = theme => ({
  root: {
    backgroundColor: 'blue',
    // Match [md, md + 1)
    //       [md, lg)
    //       [960px, 1280px)
    [theme.breakpoints.only('md')]: {
      backgroundColor: 'red',
    },
  },
});

theme.breakpoints.between(start, end) => media query

Argumentos

  1. start (String): A breakpoint key (xs, sm, etc.) or a screen width number in pixels.
  2. end (String): A breakpoint key (xs, sm, etc.) or a screen width number in pixels.

Devuelve

media query: A media query string ready to be used with most styling solutions, which matches screen widths greater than the screen size given by the breakpoint key in the first argument and less than the the screen size given by the breakpoint key in the second argument.

Ejemplos

const styles = theme => ({
  root: {
    backgroundColor: 'blue',
    // Match [sm, md + 1)
    //       [sm, lg)
    //       [600px, 1280px[
    [theme.breakpoints.between('sm', 'md')]: {
      backgroundColor: 'red',
    },
  },
});

withWidth([options]) => higher-order component

Inject a width property. It does not modify the component passed to it; instead, it returns a new component. This width breakpoint property match the current screen width. It can be one of the following breakpoints:

type Breakpoint = 'xs' | 'sm' | 'md' | 'lg' | 'xl';

Some implementation details that might be interesting to being aware of:

  • It forwards non React static properties so this HOC is more "transparent". For instance, it can be used to defined a getInitialProps() static method (next.js).

Argumentos

  1. options (Object [optional]):
    • options.withTheme (Boolean [optional]): Default false. Provide the theme object to the component as a property.
    • options.noSSR (Boolean [optional]): Default false. In order to perform the server-side rendering reconciliation, it needs to render twice. A first time with nothing and a second time with the children. This double pass rendering cycle comes with a drawback. The UI might blink. You can set this flag to true if you are not doing server-side rendering.
    • options.initialWidth (Breakpoint [optional]): As window.innerWidth is unavailable on the server, we default to rendering an empty component during the first mount. You might want to use an heuristic to approximate the screen width of the client browser screen width. For instance, you could be using the user-agent or the client-hints. https://caniuse.com/#search=client%20hint, we also can set the initial width globally using custom properties on the theme. In order to set the initialWidth we need to pass a custom property with this shape:
const theme = createTheme({
  props: {
    // withWidth component 鈿涳笍
    MuiWithWidth: {
      // Initial width property
      initialWidth: 'lg', // Breakpoint being globally set 馃寧!
    },
  },
});
  • options.resizeInterval (Number [optional]): Defaults to 166, corresponds to 10 frames at 60 Hz. Number of milliseconds to wait before responding to a screen resize event.

Devuelve

higher-order component: Should be used to wrap a component.

Ejemplos

import withWidth, { isWidthUp } from '@material-ui/core/withWidth';

function MyComponent(props) {
  if (isWidthUp('sm', props.width)) {
    return <span />
  }

  return <div />;
}

export default withWidth()(MyComponent);

Default values

You can explore the default values of the breakpoints using the theme explorer or by opening the dev tools console on this page (window.theme.breakpoints).